enology is the science that study all aspects of wine and winemaking from the grape harvest to bottle.
Scientific knowledge is playing an increasingly important role in winemaking and some winemakers specialize in the research and development of wine.
Winemakers working in large wineries are in charge of the technical side of the business. Those working in small wineries may be responsible for the whole winemaking process, from the growing of the grapes to the bottling and marketing of the finished wine.
Winemakers plan, supervise and coordinate the production of wine or spirits from selected varieties of grapes. A winemaker may perform the following tasks: liaise with viticulturalists who manage planting programs and the cultivation and production of grapes ; conduct various laboratory tests to monitor the progress of grapes to ensure their quality and to determine the correct time for harvest; organize the crushing and pressing of grapes, the settling of juice and the fermentation of grape material; direct the filtering of wine to remove remaining solids; conduct laboratory tests and monitor quality of wine; place filtered wine in casks or tanks for storage and maturation; prepare plans for bottling wine once it has matured and make sure that quality is maintained when the wine is bottled; supervise cellar personnel involved in the production of wine; supervise the maintenance of the vineyard and winery during the off-season; liaise with sales and marketing staff to make sure the type, style and quality of wines produced will meet market demands; conduct technical in-service training for cellar staff; give guided tours, conduct tastings and advise visitors about various aspects of wine.